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# Electrical Circuits

## Inductors in AC Circuits

When a coil of wire (an inductor) is connected to DC electricity (Figure 1), a current is building up from zero, making a magnetic field. The wire, itself, is in that field, and therefore, a voltage is generated in it. This generated voltage is in the opposite direction of the …

## Inductors in DC Circuits

Figure 1 illustrates a simple DC circuit consisting of a resistor with which an inductor is added in series. We are interested to see what the effect of this inductor to the circuit is. The effect of an inductor in an electric circuit is always to oppose a change in the …

## Magnetism, Electromagnetism & Magnetic Materials

One of the properties of electricity is magnetism. All motors work based on this property of electricity and its effects. Magnetism Certain metals of the iron family can become magnetized if their atoms align such that this property is enhanced. This alignment can be due to contact with another magnet, …

## Analog & Digital Multimeter

A basic multimeter can measure the three basic electric values (i.e., voltage, current, and resistance), but more functions can also be included in a multimeter. Initially, there are two types of multimeters, analog and digital. A multimeter is a must-have tool for someone working with electricity and electronics. It is …

## Capacitors in DC Circuits

A capacitor acts as a storage device to electricity. The amount of storage depends on the capacity of the capacitor. We want to study what happens if a capacitor is included with resistors connected to a DC circuit.  Figure 1a is a simple DC circuit with a resistive load, to which …

## What is Electric Power | Definition, Formula & Examples

It is always the electric power in an electric circuit that determines how much energy is going to a device, a system, or a place, and how much that energy costs. A good comprehension of the relationships for electric power, unit of power measurement, and the rules that determine power is very important. …

## Basic Electronic Components | Resistor, Inductor, & Capacitor

All the apparatuses that you can name as electric devices can be composed of one or more of the main electronic components. An electric device is connected to electricity by means of a switch and some wires; it may have a fuse as well, and if it uses electricity from …

## Capacitor Types | Fixed & Variable Capacitors

Capacitors are made in hundreds of sizes and types. Several of these will be discussed in the following section. Fixed Capacitors Fixed paper capacitors are made of layers of tinfoil. The dielectric is made of waxed paper. Wires extending from the ends connect to the foil plates. The assembly is …

## What is Capacitance | Definition & Formula

Definition: Capacitance is a property that opposes any change in voltage. A capacitor is a device that temporarily stores an electric charge. A capacitor accepts or returns this charge in order to maintain a constant voltage. Schematic symbols that are used to represent a capacitor are shown in Figure 1. …

## Mutual Inductance: Definition & Formula

Definition: When two coils are within magnetic reach of each other so that the flux lines of one coil link with, or cut across the other coil, they have mutual inductance.  If the coils are close to each other, many magnetic lines of flux from the first coil will link …

## Self-Inductance: Definition & Unit | RL Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Inductance: Inductance can be defined as the property in an electric circuit that resists a change in current. This resistance to a change in current is the result of the energy stored within the magnetic field of a coil. A coil of wire has inductance. Some electrical items that contain …

## Wire Gauge Sizes | Chart | Circular Mil Area

Conductors are the pathways that allow electrons to flow through an electrical circuit. Conductors can be made in various shapes and sizes. They can be made from a number of different materials. The most common conductor you will encounter is copper wiring. Copper is an excellent conductor and can be …

## Electrical Schematic Diagram | Elementary & Wiring Diagram

Electrical Schematic diagrams convey specific information to the technician. They illustrate such items as the size, type, component part number, and component location in relationship to the other circuit components. Diagrams can be used for installation, fabrication, troubleshooting, or to explain the circuit’s operation or purpose. Symbols are used to …

## Solenoid Characteristics

The two primary characteristics of a solenoid are the amount of voltage applied to the coil and the amount of current allowed to pass through the coil. Solenoid voltage characteristics include pick-up voltage, seal-in voltage, and drop-out voltage. Solenoid current characteristics include coil inrush current and sealed current. Coils Magnetic …

## Solenoid Types & Construction

A solenoid is an electric output device that converts electrical energy into a linear mechanical force. The magnetic attraction of a solenoid may be used to transmit force. Solenoids may be combined with an armature, which transmits the force created by the solenoid into useful work. An armature is the …