Voltaic Cell

Voltaic Cell Construction Working Examples

A voltaic cell consists basically of two different metal plates immersed in an acid solution. The action of the acid removes electrons from one plate and accumulates them on the other plate. In this way, a potential difference is produced between the two plates, and a current can be made …

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Norton’s Theorem for DC Circuits

Norton’s Theorem for DC Circuits

Norton’s theorem is used for simplifying a network in terms of currents instead of voltages. This theorem can be used with either single-source or multiple-source circuits. In certain cases, analyzing the division of currents may be easier than voltage analysis. Norton’s theorem simplifies a resistive network and represents it with a Norton …

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Alternative Ways of Generating Electricity

Alternative Ways of Generating Electricity

At the present time, we are seeing a growing number of small energy suppliers using a variety of renewable energy sources to produce electricity. Electricity from Wind Power Wind power systems convert the kinetic energy in wind into electric energy. Wind turbines are installed in locations with strong, sustained winds. Figure 1 shows a …

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Uses for Electromagnets

Uses for Electromagnets

Electromagnets can be made much more powerful than permanent magnets. In addition, the strength of the electromagnet can be easily controlled from zero to maximum by controlling the current flowing through the coil. For these reasons, electromagnets have many more practical applications than do permanent magnets. Crane Electromagnets One of …

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Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Conductor

Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Conductor

Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field is created around the conductor. This important relationship between electricity and magnetism is known as electromagnetism, or the magnetic effect of current. When DC current flows, the magnetic field will act in one direction, as illustrated in Figure 1. AC current flow will produce …

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Electrical Units and Metric Prefixes

Electrical Units and Metric Prefixes

Metric Prefixes Most often measurements made on electric circuits are that of current, voltage, resistance, and power. The base units—ampere, volt, ohm, and watts—are the values most commonly used to measure them. Table 1 lists these basic electrical quantities and the symbols that identify them. Table 1: Electrical Units, Symbols, and Definition …

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Sources of Electromotive Force (EMF)

Sources of Electromotive Force (EMF) | Primary Energy Sources

Current Electricity Current electricity is defined as an electric charge in motion. Current flow consists of a flow of negative electron charges from atom to atom, as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 Current electricity. The external force that causes the electron flow is called the electromotive force (emf) or voltage which is supplied by …

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Half and Full Wave Rectifier

Half and Full Wave Rectifier Working and Circuit Diagram

A diode is a very useful component when it is necessary to convert an alternating current into a pulsating direct current. Half-Wave Rectifier The simple half-wave rectifier circuit diagram is shown in Figure 1. When the input voltage is on its positive half cycle, the diode conducts (the diode is …

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Alternator | Components | Functions

Alternator | Components | Functions

The purpose of an alternator is to change the spinning motion of the alternator pulley (mechanical energy) into electrical energy. See Figure 2. The components of a typical alternator are shown in Figure 3. They include: Rotor assembly—field windings, claw poles, rotor shaft, and slip rings. Stator assembly—three stator windings, …

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Automotive Battery Operation

Automotive Battery Operation

Automotive batteries produce direct current. They have the potential to produce a tremendous amount of current for their size. Automotive batteries are very dependable, normally providing several years of trouble-free service. Discharging and Charging When electrons are flowing out of the battery, the battery is releasing stored energy, as shown …

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Automotive Battery

Automotive Battery | Construction | Parts

An automotive battery is an electrochemical device (a device that uses both electrical energy and chemical energy to operate) that stores and produces electric current and voltage. A conventional automotive battery is also called a lead-acid battery because of the materials used in its construction. A volt battery is made …

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How Does Static Electricity Work?

How Does Static Electricity Work? | Examples | Uses

Static electricity is the accumulation of electric charges on the surface of a material, usually an insulator or nonconductor of electricity. The term static means standing still or at rest, and static electricity refers to an electric charge at rest. The result of this buildup of static electricity is that objects may …

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LAN, WAN, and the Internet Explained

LAN, WAN, and the Internet Explained

Computers can be connected, or networked, to one another through cable or wireless technologies, enabling communications and data and resource sharing. A network can be limited to a single building, or spread across the entire globe. Local Area Network (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers …

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Laser Construction, Types & Applications

Laser Construction, Types & Applications

The word laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Laser light is different from other forms of light because light produced by a laser is in phase. To understand what it means for light to be in phase, look at the following figure. Figure. Visible …

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Digital Electronics Flip Flops | Types | Truth Table

Digital Electronics Flip Flops | Types |Truth Table

Flip-flops are a rather unique digital device based upon the operation of combined logic gates. Flip-flops are an essential part of digital electronics. They are at the very heart of counters, timers, sequencing devices, and memories. Flip-flops are semiconductor devices that are capable of assuming one of two stable states. …

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Digital Circuits Applications

Digital Circuits Applications

Digital circuits are used for many reasons. For example, digital circuits convert ac sine waves to digital pulses, Figure 1. The ac signal is sampled. Various points are given digital values. These are later converted to a binary value. Figure 1. An ac signal being converted to digital pulses. Figure …

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How Does Vacuum Tube Work | Working Principle

How Does Vacuum Tube Work | Working Principle

The vacuum tube is a direct result of Thomas Edison’s experiment with the incandescent lamp. In this experiment, a metal plate was placed in the vacuum bulb containing the filament. A battery and series meter were connected between the light filament and the plate. At this point, Edison discovered that …

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Electric Motor | Protection | Failure | Troubleshooting

Electric Motor | Protection | Failure | Troubleshooting

Motor protection is important to any motor system. Most motor protection involves safety devices installed in the power lines that feed the motor. These devices protect more than just the motor. They protect the load and any other device connected in the motor system. Motor Installation and Protection Unless the …

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Transformer Applications and Uses

Transformer Applications and Uses

There are quite a number of special transformer applications. The following text details only a few of these applications. Autotransformers The common transformer consists of two windings: primary and secondary. While the two windings are not physically joined, a magnetic coupling exists between them. The electrical separation between the windings …

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DC Motor Theory

DC Motor Theory | Working Principle

One of the most important developments in the field of electricity is the electric motor. The electric motor converts electrical power into rotating mechanical power. Motors are used for such items as refrigeration and air conditioning, food mixers, vacuum cleaners, grinders, pumps, power bench saws, lathes, various wood and metal …

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