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PN Junction Theory for Semiconductor Diodes

PN Junction Theory for Semiconductor Diodes

A simple section of n- or p-type material is not particularly useful for the construction of electronic circuits. However, when sections of n- and p-type material are brought in contact to form a PN junction, a diode is formed. Diodes have a number of interesting and useful properties that are due entirely to the nature of the PN …

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Physical Limitations of Operational Amplifier

Physical Limitations of Operational Amplifier

Practical op-amps are not ideal but exhibit limitations that should be considered in the design of instrumentation. In particular, in dealing with relatively large voltages and currents, and in the presence of high-frequency signals, it is important to be aware of the non-ideal properties of the op-amp. Figure a: Operational …

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Inverting & Non-Inverting Operational Amplifier Basics

Inverting & Non-Inverting Operational Amplifier Basics

An operational amplifier (op-amp) is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains a large number of microscopic electrical and electronic components integrated on a single silicon wafer. An op-amp can be used in conjunction with other common components to create circuits that perform amplification and filtering, as well as mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, …

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Enhancement Mode MOSFET

Enhancement Mode MOSFET | Operation | Characteristics | Basics

Figure 1 depicts the circuit symbol and the construction of a typical n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET. The device has four regions: the gate, the drain, the source, and the bulk. Each of these regions has its own conducting terminal. The bulk and source terminals are often electrically connected, in which case the bulk terminal is not shown in the …

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Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Theory

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Theory

A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is formed by joining three sections of alternating p- and n-type material. An NPN transistor is a BJT with a thin, lightly doped p-type base region sandwiched between a heavily doped n-type emitter region and a large, lightly doped n-type collector region. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) counterpart to the NPN is the PNP transistor, which utilizes the same doping scheme …

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Fiber Optics Basics

Fiber Optics Basics

Optical Fiber is a length of ultra-pure glass or plastic that provides a closed pathway for transmitting light between two points. Glass optical fibers are by far the most commonly used, so we will assume that the optical fibers in all our discussions are made of glass. Optical Fiber: A …

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Photoelectric Devices and Their Applications

Photoelectric devices typically contain solid-state output switches. A solid-state switch has no moving parts (contacts). A solid-state switch uses a triac, SCR, NPN (current sink) transistor, or PNP (current source) transistor output to perform the switching function. See Figure 1. The triac output is used for switching AC loads. The …

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