# Electrical Engineering Terms L

Linear Load.

A utilization-equipment load where the wave shape of the current follows — is in phase with — the wave shape of the applied voltage. At the point of common-return on the neutral conductor, linear single-phase AC currents cancel only the unbalanced load current.

Line Disturbances.

These are fluctuations of the voltage and/or current that can occur on electrical circuit conductors. Line disturbances include voltage sags, spikes or surges, static charges (electrical noise), lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and radio frequency interference (RFI). Line disturbances are often the result of the improper grounding of the non-current-carrying metal parts of the building or other structure electrical-power distribution system.

Line Losses.

As used with the utility transmission of electrical power, the dissipation of heat (loss of power) along the lengths of the circuit conductors due to the effects of a transmission line.

Line Surge.

(1) A higher than normal distribution transient wave of current, potential, or power in a distribution circuit that is both unwanted and temporary (transient variation). (2) A sudden increase in current or voltage in an electrical circuit.

Locked-Rotor Current (LRC).

Normally abbreviated to the acronym LRC, this type of overload overcurrent is the steady-state current of the stator circuit in an electric motor when the rotor is locked in position (not turning) with rated voltage and frequency (AC) applied to the motor. The flow of this maximum overload overcurrent is limited only by the resistance of the motor windings and is approximately equal to the amount of current the motor requires during starting (in-rush starting current).

Laminated.

In the assembly of the iron core of a transformer, the process of riveting or bolting together several individual oxidized thin sheets of steel to form the required cross-section of the flux path in the iron core. Because the oxidation of the steel sheets serves as an insulator to the flow of eddy currents, lamination reduces the effect of eddy currents to a bare-bones minimum.