Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Design

The task of designing Photovoltaic (PV) systems is a very tricky process due to the fact that PV panels are still relatively expensive and energy production is very sensitive to atmospheric conditions and the physical location. In the case of ground-mounted PV systems, one can choose the optimum tilt angle …

Read More »

Photovoltaic (PV) Cell: Characteristics and Parameters

I-V Characteristics of a PV Cell

PV cell characterization involves measuring the cell’s electrical performance characteristics to determine conversion efficiency and critical parameters. The conversion efficiency is a measure of how much incident light energy is converted into electrical energy. The optimum operating point for maximum output power is also a critical parameter, as is a …

Read More »

Transformer Working Principle | Losses | Efficiency

Transformer Applications and Uses

Transformers are used today in almost every electrical system to either step up, step down, or isolate one voltage level from another. The extensive use of transformers started after what is known in the electrical field as the “War of Currents.” Thomas Edison believed that the U.S. power distribution system …

Read More »

Smart Grid Distribution System

smart grid distribution system

As an important form of energy, electricity offers the advantages of being clean, highly efficient and convenient for users. The power system that links the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electricity is one of the most complex man-made systems constructed to date. With the increasing demand for energy throughout …

Read More »

Voltage Changes in Electrical Power System

Voltage changes in an electrical power system may be categorized as momentary, temporary, or sustained.

AC generators are designed to produce a rated output voltage. In addition, all electrical and electronic equipment is rated for operation at a specific voltage. The rated voltage is a voltage range that was normally ±10%. Today, however, with many components de-rated to save energy and operating cost, the range …

Read More »

Solenoid Characteristics

Solenoid inrush current

The two primary characteristics of a solenoid are the amount of voltage applied to the coil and the amount of current allowed to pass through the coil. Solenoid voltage characteristics include pick-up voltage, seal-in voltage, and drop-out voltage. Solenoid current characteristics include coil inrush current and sealed current. Coils Magnetic …

Read More »

Solenoid Types & Construction

A solenoid is an electric output device that converts electrical energy into a linear mechanical force. The magnetic attraction of a solenoid may be used to transmit force. Solenoids may be combined with an armature, which transmits the force created by the solenoid into useful work. An armature is the …

Read More »

Digital Logic Functions | Digital Logic Gates

Control devices such as push buttons, limit switches, and pressure switches are connected into a circuit so that the circuit can function in a predetermined manner. All control circuits are basic logic functions or combinations of logic functions. Logic functions are common to all areas of industry. This includes electricity, …

Read More »

Oscilloscope Working Principle | Oscilloscope Parts and Function

oscilloscope

Oscilloscopes come in a variety of brands and complexities. Two general categories of oscilloscopes include those used for general-purpose bench work applications, and the more complex (and expensive) laboratory-quality oscilloscopes, Figure 1a and b. A portable scope is shown in Figure 1c. Figure 1: (a) General-purpose oscilloscope; (b) lab-quality oscilloscope; …

Read More »

Power Transformer Characteristics

Power transformers

Power transformers, Figure 1, typically have the following features: They are heavy (because of their iron core) and can be very large, like the transformers on telephone poles. However, power transformers in electronic devices are much smaller and vary considerably in size. They have a laminated iron core to reduce …

Read More »

Types of Electric Motors and their Applications

three phase motor

Although there are many different types and sizes of motors, most electric motors used in commercial and industrial applications can be classified as single-phase (1 φ) or three-phase (3 φ). Single-phase motors are commonly used in some commercial applications such as garage door openers, sump pumps, automatic doors, and ceiling …

Read More »

Basic Electrical Questions and Answers

These questions are primarily related to Capacitance, Electric Current, Resistors in Series and Parallel. These topics are covered in detail here: Capacitance Electric Current Series and Parallel Circuit   Determine the voltage when 500 J of energy is used to move 10 C of charge.           …

Read More »

Energy Resources Questions Answers

These questions are related to Type of Fuels, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, and Nuclear Energy that are covered in detail here: How Does Nuclear Energy Work All about Solar Energy | Solar Energy Environmental Impact Global Wind Patterns | Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Types of Fossil Fuels What are …

Read More »

Electrical Protective Devices

Fuses and circuit breakers are placed in the current path of an electric circuit. They are used to create an open (break in the circuit) when the current exceeds a specified number of amperes due to a malfunction or other abnormal condition. The basic difference between a fuse and circuit …

Read More »

Digital Multimeter Working Principle

Typical DMM with probes

To test and troubleshoot circuits, it is necessary to understand how to use basic electronic measuring instruments. The digital multimeter (DMM) is the most widely used electronic measuring instrument. Also, the clamp-type ammeter is useful for measuring current, especially in power applications. An older analog meter called the volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM) …

Read More »

Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers

A resistor presents a fixed value of resistance (opposition to current) that is independent of the type of voltage (dc or ac) applied to it. Capacitors and inductors are two types of electrical components classified as reactive, which means that their opposition to current depends on the type of voltage …

Read More »

Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices

Magnetic Attraction and Repulsion

Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices In this section, you will learn about basic magnetism and electromagnetism. Three important electromagnetic devices are introduced: the relay, the generator, and the motor. All of these devices are important in renewable energy systems. Relays are commonly used in many applications to switch current on and …

Read More »