Frequency response plots of linear systems are often displayed in the form of logarithmic plots, called Bode plots after the mathematician Hendrik W. Bode, where the horizontal axis represents frequency on a logarithmic scale (base 10) and the vertical axis represents either the amplitude or phase of the frequency response …

Read More »## Band Pass Filter Frequency Response

Using the same principles and procedures in the case of low and high pass filters, it is possible to derive a band pass filter frequency response for particular types of circuits. Such a filter passes the input to the output at frequencies within a certain range. The analysis of a …

Read More »## Low Pass and High Pass Filter Frequency Response

There are many practical applications that involve filters of one kind or another. Modern sunglasses filter out eye-damaging ultraviolet radiation and reduce the intensity of sunlight reaching the eyes. The suspension system of an automobile filters out road noise and reduces the impact of potholes on passengers. An analogous concept …

Read More »## Fourier Series

The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of frequency domain analysis of signals, and specifically the Fourier series. Later in this article, we explain how it is possible to represent periodic signals by means of the superposition of various sinusoidal signals of different amplitude, phase, and frequency. …

Read More »## Second Order System Transient Response

In general, a second-order circuit has two irreducible storage elements: two capacitors, two inductors, or one capacitor and one inductor. The latter case is the most important in terms of new fundamentals; however, the important aspects of all second-order system responses are discussed in this section. Since second-order circuits have …

Read More »## First Order System Transient Response

First-order systems are important in all engineering disciplines and occur frequently in nature. Such systems are characterized by a single state variable, where the system energy is proportional to the square of the state variable. That energy is dissipated by the system such that the rate of change of the …

Read More »## Resistance and Impedance in an AC Circuit

The i -v relationships of resistors, capacitors, and inductors can be expressed in phasor notation. As phasors, each i-v relationship takes the form of a generalized Ohm’s law: $\text{V=IZ}$ where the phasor quantity Z is known as impedance. For a resistor, inductor, and capacitor, the impedances are, respectively: $\begin{matrix}{{Z}_{R}}=R & …

Read More »## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Definition Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load resistance Ro is equal to Thevenin resistance RT as seen from load Terminals. The reduction of any linear resistive circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent form is a very convenient conceptualization, …

Read More »## Superposition Theorem

The principle of superposition is a valid and frequently used, analytic tool for any linear circuit. It is also a powerful conceptual aid for understanding the behavior of circuits with multiple sources. For any linear circuit, the principle of superposition states that each independent source contributes to each voltage and …

Read More »## Node Voltage Method

Node voltage analysis is the most general method for the analysis of electric circuits. Its application to linear resistive circuits is illustrated in this article. The node voltage method is based on defining the voltage at each node as an independent variable. One of the nodes is freely chosen as …

Read More »## Mesh Current Analysis

Another method of circuit analysis employs mesh currents. The objective, similar to that of node analysis, is to generate one independent equation for each independent variable in a circuit. In this method, each mesh in a circuit is assigned a mesh current variable and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) is applied …

Read More »## Characteristics of Network and Electric Circuit

The Oxford online dictionary defines a network as “a group or system of interconnected people or things”. In an electric network, elements, such as resistors, are connected by wires. The same dictionary defines a circuit as “a complete and closed path around which a circulating electric current can flow” or …

Read More »## Inverter Harmonic Distortion

It has been found that any periodic (repeating), the non-sinusoidal waveform can be produced by adding a series of sine waves at frequencies other than the fundamental. The fundamental frequency of a waveform is also called the first harmonic. AC voltage and current waveforms consist of frequencies, called harmonics that …

Read More »## Inverter | Efficiency & Output Waveform

In many cases, renewable energy sources have DC outputs. The outputs of PV cells, fuel cells, some wind turbine generators, and other renewable energy devices are DC, but most of the world uses AC power. Therefore, DC power sources use an inverter to change DC to AC. Early inverters were …

Read More »## All about Batteries

Most electrical sources deliver energy almost immediately upon production. Batteries are an exception; they store electrical energy and deliver power to a load on demand. Batteries are electrochemical sources and use a chemical process to generate DC electricity. Batteries supply power to the load and are then recharged to repeat …

Read More »## Battery Bank Sizing

The following steps can be used to estimate the size of a battery bank for a stand-alone PV system (and other systems). 1. Calculate the average daily AC load at Wh per day (this is done before the battery bank sizing by using utility electric bills or adding the watts …

Read More »## Difference Between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Ferromagnetism

In order to classify materials as magnetic or non-magnetic, it must be determined whether or not forces act on the material when a material is placed in a magnetic field. If a bar of any given material is suspended in a magnetic field, it will either turn at a right …

Read More »## Difference between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator

This article covers the key differences between Conductor, Semiconductor, and Insulator on the basis of Conductivity, Resistivity, Forbidden Gap, Conduction, Band Structure, Current Flow, Band Overlap, 0 Kelvin Behavior, and Examples. The following table covers the key Differences between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator. You May Also Read: Difference between Electric and …

Read More »## Fiber Optics Basics

Optical Fiber is a length of ultra-pure glass or plastic that provides a closed pathway for transmitting light between two points. Glass optical fibers are by far the most commonly used, so we will assume that the optical fibers in all our discussions are made of glass. Optical Fiber: A …

Read More »## Three Phase Transformer Connections

For three-phase electricity transformation, it is possible to use three separate but similar single-phase transformers, or a three-phase transformer. A three-phase transformer is more compact and more efficient. The single core in a three-phase transformer can have various forms by combining the cores of single-phase transformers. Figure 1 shows the more common …

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