Solid State Relay Switching Methods

Soli-State Relay Switching Methods

The solid state relay used in an application depends on the load to be controlled. The different SSRs are designed to properly control certain loads. The four basic solid state relays are the zero switching (ZS) relay, instant-on (IO) relay, peak switching (PS) relay, and analog switching (AS) relay. Zero …

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Solid-State Relay Circuit Components

Solid-State Relay Circuit Components

A relay is a device that controls one electrical circuit by opening and closing another circuit. A small voltage applied to relay results in a larger voltage being switched. A solid-state relay (SSR) is a switching device that has no contacts and switches entirely by electronic means. An SSR uses a …

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Solid State Relay Problems

Solid State Relay Problems

Temperature rise is the largest problem in applications that use solid state relay (SSR). As temperature increases, the failure rate of SSRs increases. As temperature increases, the number of operations of an SSR decreases. The higher the heat in an SSR, the more problems occur. See Figure 1. The failure …

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Photoelectric Devices and Their Applications

Photoelectric devices typically contain solid-state output switches. A solid-state switch has no moving parts (contacts). A solid-state switch uses a triac, SCR, NPN (current sink) transistor, or PNP (current source) transistor output to perform the switching function. See Figure 1. The triac output is used for switching AC loads. The …

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Single Phase Motors Characteristics

Single Phase Motor Characteristics

This article covers Characteristics of several Single Phase Electric Motors such as Shade Pole Motor, Split-Phase, and Capacitor Start-Induction Run (CSIR) Motors, Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) and Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run (CSR) Motors, and Brushless D.C Motors in detail. Shaded Pole Motors (SP) Shaded Pole motors exhibit low starting and operating torque; they are …

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LED Bar Graph Using Arduino

LED Bar Graph Using Arduino

In this project, you’ll combine what you’ve learned in the previous led projects to create a led bar graph that you can control with a potentiometer. Create a Dimmer Switch to Control LED Brightness Using Arduino Control an LED with Push-button Switch and Arduino | Step by Step Parts Required …

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Create a Dimmer Switch to Control LED Brightness Using Arduino

Create a Dimmer Switch to Control LED Brightness Using Arduino

In this project, you’ll create a dimmer switch by adding a potentiometer to control the brightness of an LED. PARTS REQUIRED Arduino board Breadboard Jumper wires LED 50k-ohm potentiometer 470-ohm resistor A potentiometer is a variable resistor with a knob that allows you to alter the resistance of the potentiometer as you …

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Electric Power Distribution System Basics

A one-line diagram for an electric power distribution system is an electrical drawing that uses single lines and graphic symbols to illustrate the current path, voltage values, circuit disconnects, fuses, circuit breakers, transformers, and panelboards. One-line diagrams use the most basic symbols because the intent of the drawing is to …

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Electrical Power: Transmission & Distribution | Distribution Substation Components

Electrical Power: Transmission & Distribution

Today, most electrical power is distributed through a network of transmission lines (conductors), substations (transformers), and generating equipment from relatively large, centralized power-generating stations directly to the customer. These large, centralized power-generating stations are located near abundant energy sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Large, centralized power-generating stations …

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Nodal Analysis with Solved Examples

nodal analysis

Nodal analysis is a circuit-analysis format that combines Kirchhoff’s current- law equations with the source transformation. Converting all voltage sources to equivalent constant-current sources allows us to standardize the way we write the Kirchhoff’s current-law equations. For nodal analysis, we consider source currents to flow into a node. If the …

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Mesh Current Analysis with Solved Problems

Mesh Current Analysis is a technique that simplifies and speeds up writing the simultaneous equations for solving various resistance networks. The format for mesh equations is straightforward, but it cannot handle some of the networks that we can solve with the loop procedure. A mesh is a closed loop that …

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Source Transformation Example Problems with Solutions

source-transformation-1

Source transformation is a circuit analysis technique in which we convert voltage source in series with resistor into a current source in parallel with the resistor and vice versa. For a given constant-voltage source, Rint in the equivalent constant-current source has the same value but appears in parallel with the ideal current source, …

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