How to Resolve Energy Problems of Pakistan?

In general, electricity is a basic necessity for anyone instead of a luxury. In order to attain a certain standard of living, electricity is indispensable. Since, the demand for this energy has been increasing exponentially with the ever-rising number of population of Pakistan, the supply of electricity has been inadequate …

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Voltage Changes in Electrical Power System

Voltage changes in an electrical power system may be categorized as momentary, temporary, or sustained.

AC generators are designed to produce a rated output voltage. In addition, all electrical and electronic equipment is rated for operation at a specific voltage. The rated voltage is a voltage range that was normally ±10%. Today, however, with many components de-rated to save energy and operating cost, the range …

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Types of AC Generators | Single Phase and Three Phase AC Generator

AC Generator

The types of AC generators include single-phase (1φ) and three-phase (3φ) AC generators. Single-phase and three-phase AC generators operate similarly; however, single-phase generators have one armature and three- phase generators have three armatures. Three-phase generators provide a more consistent voltage than single-phase generators. Three-phase AC generators are either wye-connection or …

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AC Generator: Parts & Functions

AC generators consist of field windings, an armature (coil), slip rings, and brushes

Generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of electromagnetic induction. AC generators, also referred to as alternators, convert mechanical energy into AC voltage and current. AC generators consist of field windings or permanent magnets, an armature, slip rings, and brushes. See Figure 1. Figure 1. AC generators consist …

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DC Generator Types | Series Shunt Compound Generators

The three types of DC generators are series-wound, shunt-wound, and compound-wound generators. The difference between the types is based on the relationship of the field windings to the external circuit. Series-Wound DC Generators A series-wound DC generator is a generator that has its field windings connected in series with the …

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DC Generator: Parts & Working

DC generators consist of field windings, an armature, a commutator, and brushes

A DC generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of electromagnetic induction. DC generators operate on the principle that when a coil of wire is rotated in a magnetic field, a voltage is induced in the coil. The amount of voltage induced in the …

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Solenoid Applications in Daily World

Solenoids can be found in a wide range of equipment. In residential equipment, solenoids can be found in doorbells, washing machines, and kitchen appliances. Solenoids are commonly used in commercial and industrial control circuit applications such as hydraulics/ pneumatics, refrigeration, combustion, general-purpose controls, and pneumatic robotics. Hydraulics/Pneumatics Solenoid-operated valves typically …

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Solenoid Characteristics

Solenoid inrush current

The two primary characteristics of a solenoid are the amount of voltage applied to the coil and the amount of current allowed to pass through the coil. Solenoid voltage characteristics include pick-up voltage, seal-in voltage, and drop-out voltage. Solenoid current characteristics include coil inrush current and sealed current. Coils Magnetic …

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Solenoid Types & Construction

A solenoid is an electric output device that converts electrical energy into a linear mechanical force. The magnetic attraction of a solenoid may be used to transmit force. Solenoids may be combined with an armature, which transmits the force created by the solenoid into useful work. An armature is the …

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Digital Logic Functions | Digital Logic Gates

Control devices such as push buttons, limit switches, and pressure switches are connected into a circuit so that the circuit can function in a predetermined manner. All control circuits are basic logic functions or combinations of logic functions. Logic functions are common to all areas of industry. This includes electricity, …

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Motor Starter Control Circuit Diagram

Figure 2 Three Phase induction motor

The electrical industry has established a universal set of symbols and rules on how line diagrams (circuits) are laid out. By applying these standards, an electrician establishes a working practice with a language in common with all electricians. One Load per Line No more than one load should be placed …

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Oscilloscope Working Principle | Oscilloscope Parts and Function


Oscilloscopes come in a variety of brands and complexities. Two general categories of oscilloscopes include those used for general-purpose bench work applications, and the more complex (and expensive) laboratory-quality oscilloscopes, Figure 1a and b. A portable scope is shown in Figure 1c. Figure 1: (a) General-purpose oscilloscope; (b) lab-quality oscilloscope; …

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Power Transformer Characteristics

Power transformers

Power transformers, Figure 1, typically have the following features: They are heavy (because of their iron core) and can be very large, like the transformers on telephone poles. However, power transformers in electronic devices are much smaller and vary considerably in size. They have a laminated iron core to reduce …

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Types of Electric Motors and their Applications

three phase motor

Although there are many different types and sizes of motors, most electric motors used in commercial and industrial applications can be classified as single-phase (1 φ) or three-phase (3 φ). Single-phase motors are commonly used in some commercial applications such as garage door openers, sump pumps, automatic doors, and ceiling …

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Basic Electrical Questions and Answers

These questions are primarily related to Capacitance, Electric Current, Resistors in Series and Parallel. These topics are covered in detail here: Capacitance Electric Current Series and Parallel Circuit   Determine the voltage when 500 J of energy is used to move 10 C of charge.           …

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Energy Resources Questions Answers

These questions are related to Type of Fuels, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, and Nuclear Energy that are covered in detail here: How Does Nuclear Energy Work All about Solar Energy | Solar Energy Environmental Impact Global Wind Patterns | Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Types of Fossil Fuels What are …

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Electrical Protective Devices

Fuses and circuit breakers are placed in the current path of an electric circuit. They are used to create an open (break in the circuit) when the current exceeds a specified number of amperes due to a malfunction or other abnormal condition. The basic difference between a fuse and circuit …

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Digital Multimeter Working Principle

Typical DMM with probes

To test and troubleshoot circuits, it is necessary to understand how to use basic electronic measuring instruments. The digital multimeter (DMM) is the most widely used electronic measuring instrument. Also, the clamp-type ammeter is useful for measuring current, especially in power applications. An older analog meter called the volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM) …

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