Electric Generator: Construction, Working and Losses

three phase electric generator construction and working

After studying this article, you will be able to: Explain how mechanical energy can produce electrical energy. State Lenz’s law. Discuss the difference between direct current and alternating current. Explain the construction and function of an Electric generator. In 1831, scientist Michael Faraday wondered: If electricity produces magnetism, can magnetism …

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Electrical Components and Symbols

Electrical Components and Symbols

Electrical and electronic systems contain circuits. Loosely defined, a Circuit is a group of components that performs a specific function. The function performed by a given circuit depends on the components used and how they are connected together. Nearly all circuits, no matter how complex, are made up of the …

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Use your iPhone as Your Home Stereo

Use your iPhone as Your Home Stereo

Your iPhone is great for music on the go, but you can use it as your home stereo as well. In this project, we’ll look at the five best ways of doing so: •   Using an iPhone speaker dock •   Connecting your iPhone directly to your stereo with a cable •   Connecting your …

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Load your iPhone with Content from Multiple Computers

Load your iPhone with Content from Multiple Computers

As you know, you can sync your iPhone in either of two ways: by using Apple’s iCloud online service, or by using your computer. iCloud is arguably the wave of the future, and it’s a great way to keep your music and other content synced among your iPhone, your computer, …

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Resistor Types and Color Code

Resistor Types and Color Code

One of the most common components encountered in the study of electronics is the resistor. The resistor is used to create desirable voltage drops and limit current values in electronic circuitry. Figure 1 shows several molded composition, fixed resistors. They are manufactured in many sizes and shapes. The schematic symbol …

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Electrical Circuit Devices

Electrical Circuit Devices

There are several common circuit devices that are present in most electrical and electronic circuits. They provide a means of controlling electron flow through the conductor paths and provide for safe operation of circuits. The three important items discussed here are switches, connectors, and circuit protection devices. Switches Switches are …

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Types of DC Motors

Types of DC Motors | Motor Starting Circuits

The different types of dc motors share the common names of dc generators such as shunt, series, and com- pound. The construction of the motors is similar to the generator counter parts. Shunt DC Motor In the shunt motor, the field windings shunt across, or in parallel to, the armature, …

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Setting up Your Apple Watch

Setting up Your Apple Watch

Why do you need an iPhone? The Apple Watch has many capabilities, but it can’t do everything on its own. It works in tandem with your iPhone to perform many functions. Having an iPhone is not optional; you must have one to use your Apple Watch. You need an iPhone …

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Getting to Know Apple Watch | How to Use the Apple Watch

Getting to Know Apple Watch | How to Use the Apple Watch

Anatomy of the Apple Watch The sleek, streamlined design of Apple Watch is designed for easy, intuitive use and has few external parts and pieces. Apple Watch Models Apple Watch comes in three different models, with options that can be mixed and matched to create 38 different variations. When it …

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Ideal Operational Amplifier

Ideal Operational Amplifier | Characteristics | Basics

Amplifiers are an essential aspect of many electronic applications. Perhaps the most familiar use of an amplifier is to convert the low-voltage, low-power signal from a digital audio player (e.g., iPhone or MP3 player) to a level suitable for driving a pair of earbuds or headphones, as shown in Figure 1. …

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Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

For many applications, it is desirable that a DC supply be steady and ripple-free. Voltage regulators are used to ensure that the output of a DC supply is steady and relatively independent of load. The most common device employed in voltage regulation schemes is the Zener diode. Zener diodes are …

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PN Junction Theory for Semiconductor Diodes

PN Junction Theory for Semiconductor Diodes

A simple section of n- or p-type material is not particularly useful for the construction of electronic circuits. However, when sections of n- and p-type material are brought in contact to form a PN junction, a diode is formed. Diodes have a number of interesting and useful properties that are due entirely to the nature of the PN …

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Physical Limitations of Operational Amplifier

Physical Limitations of Operational Amplifier

Practical op-amps are not ideal but exhibit limitations that should be considered in the design of instrumentation. In particular, in dealing with relatively large voltages and currents, and in the presence of high-frequency signals, it is important to be aware of the non-ideal properties of the op-amp. Figure a: Operational …

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Inverting & Non-Inverting Operational Amplifier Basics

Inverting & Non-Inverting Operational Amplifier Basics

An operational amplifier (op-amp) is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains a large number of microscopic electrical and electronic components integrated on a single silicon wafer. An op-amp can be used in conjunction with other common components to create circuits that perform amplification and filtering, as well as mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, …

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Enhancement Mode MOSFET

Enhancement Mode MOSFET | Operation | Characteristics | Basics

Figure 1 depicts the circuit symbol and the construction of a typical n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET. The device has four regions: the gate, the drain, the source, and the bulk. Each of these regions has its own conducting terminal. The bulk and source terminals are often electrically connected, in which case the bulk terminal is not shown in the …

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Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Theory

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Theory

A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is formed by joining three sections of alternating p- and n-type material. An NPN transistor is a BJT with a thin, lightly doped p-type base region sandwiched between a heavily doped n-type emitter region and a large, lightly doped n-type collector region. The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) counterpart to the NPN is the PNP transistor, which utilizes the same doping scheme …

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Instantaneous and Average Power Formula

Instantaneous and Average Power Formula

When a linear electric circuit is excited by a sinusoidal source, all voltages and currents in the circuit are also sinusoids of the same frequency as the source. Figure 1 depicts the general form of a linear AC circuit. Figure 1 Time and frequency domain representations of an AC circuit. …

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