Smart Grid Distribution System

smart grid distribution system

As an important form of energy, electricity offers the advantages of being clean, highly efficient and convenient for users. The power system that links the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electricity is one of the most complex man-made systems constructed to date. With the increasing demand for energy throughout …

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Digital Logic Functions | Digital Logic Gates

Control devices such as push buttons, limit switches, and pressure switches are connected into a circuit so that the circuit can function in a predetermined manner. All control circuits are basic logic functions or combinations of logic functions. Logic functions are common to all areas of industry. This includes electricity, …

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Oscilloscope Working Principle | Oscilloscope Parts and Function


Oscilloscopes come in a variety of brands and complexities. Two general categories of oscilloscopes include those used for general-purpose bench work applications, and the more complex (and expensive) laboratory-quality oscilloscopes, Figure 1a and b. A portable scope is shown in Figure 1c. Figure 1: (a) General-purpose oscilloscope; (b) lab-quality oscilloscope; …

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Power Transformer Characteristics

Power transformers

Power transformers, Figure 1, typically have the following features: They are heavy (because of their iron core) and can be very large, like the transformers on telephone poles. However, power transformers in electronic devices are much smaller and vary considerably in size. They have a laminated iron core to reduce …

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Basic Electrical Questions and Answers

These questions are primarily related to Capacitance, Electric Current, Resistors in Series and Parallel. These topics are covered in detail here: Capacitance Electric Current Series and Parallel Circuit   Determine the voltage when 500 J of energy is used to move 10 C of charge.           …

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Energy Resources Questions Answers

These questions are related to Type of Fuels, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, and Nuclear Energy that are covered in detail here: How Does Nuclear Energy Work All about Solar Energy | Solar Energy Environmental Impact Global Wind Patterns | Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Types of Fossil Fuels What are …

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Electrical Protective Devices

Fuses and circuit breakers are placed in the current path of an electric circuit. They are used to create an open (break in the circuit) when the current exceeds a specified number of amperes due to a malfunction or other abnormal condition. The basic difference between a fuse and circuit …

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Digital Multimeter Working Principle

Typical DMM with probes

To test and troubleshoot circuits, it is necessary to understand how to use basic electronic measuring instruments. The digital multimeter (DMM) is the most widely used electronic measuring instrument. Also, the clamp-type ammeter is useful for measuring current, especially in power applications. An older analog meter called the volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM) …

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Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers

A resistor presents a fixed value of resistance (opposition to current) that is independent of the type of voltage (dc or ac) applied to it. Capacitors and inductors are two types of electrical components classified as reactive, which means that their opposition to current depends on the type of voltage …

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Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices

Magnetic Attraction and Repulsion

Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices In this section, you will learn about basic magnetism and electromagnetism. Three important electromagnetic devices are introduced: the relay, the generator, and the motor. All of these devices are important in renewable energy systems. Relays are commonly used in many applications to switch current on and …

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Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors

Electricity consists of moving charge. When we think of the path for electricity, we think of wires most of the time. In metallic solids, electrons make up the charge that moves; however, the charge can also move through certain liquids and gases as well as space itself. In this section, …

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Series and Parallel Circuits

Four Examples of Parallel Circuits 1

Series and parallel circuits are two basic arrangements of the source and loads. Series and parallel circuits are often combined to form complex circuits that can be understood on the basis of simpler series and parallel arrangements.  Series Circuits A series connection is one with a single path. A series circuit has …

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Power and Watt’s Law

Watt Law

When there is current through a resistance, electrical energy is converted to heat or other forms of energy such as light. A common example of this is the incandescent light bulb that becomes too hot to touch when it has been on for a short time. The current through the …

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Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Cutaway View of a Carbon-Composition Resistor

With the exception of a special class of materials called superconductors, all materials have resistance, which is the opposition to current. Conductors are generally metallic materials with low resistance, whereas insulators are materials with high resistance. When there is current through a resistive material, heat is produced by the collisions …

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Electrical Current: Definition & Formula

Complete DC Circuit

The original idea of current was based on Benjamin Franklin’s belief that electricity was an unseen substance that moved from positive to negative. Conventional current is defined based on this original assumption of positive to negative. The original definition is widely used, although there is another definition of current called electron flow. Electrons move …

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Nuclear Energy Environmental Impact

The ITER Tokamak Fusion Reactor

Environmental Concerns The environmental concerns associated with nuclear reactors are very different than with fossil fuel–burning power plants. On the positive side, reactors do not emit greenhouse gases or other atmospheric pollutants. They also use significantly less fuel in terms of weight than coal-fired plants. Reactors for electricity production have …

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