Superposition Theorem

Principle of Superposition theorem

The principle of superposition is a valid and frequently used, analytic tool for any linear circuit. It is also a powerful conceptual aid for understanding the behavior of circuits with multiple sources. For any linear circuit, the principle of superposition states that each independent source contributes to each voltage and …

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Node Voltage Method

Node Voltage Method

Node voltage analysis is the most general method for the analysis of electric circuits. Its application to linear resistive circuits is illustrated in this article. The node voltage method is based on defining the voltage at each node as an independent variable. One of the nodes is freely chosen as …

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Mesh Current Analysis

Mesh Current Analysis | Steps | Solved Example

Another method of circuit analysis employs mesh currents. The objective, similar to that of node analysis, is to generate one independent equation for each independent variable in a circuit. In this method, each mesh in a circuit is assigned a mesh current variable and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) is applied …

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Characteristics of Network and Electric Circuit

Characteristics of Network and Electric Circuit

The Oxford online dictionary defines a network as “a group or system of interconnected people or things”. In an electric network, elements, such as resistors, are connected by wires. The same dictionary defines a circuit as “a complete and closed path around which a circulating electric current can flow” or …

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Inverter Harmonic Distortion

Inverter Harmonic Distortion

It has been found that any periodic (repeating), the non-sinusoidal waveform can be produced by adding a series of sine waves at frequencies other than the fundamental. The fundamental frequency of a waveform is also called the first harmonic. AC voltage and current waveforms consist of frequencies, called harmonics that …

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Inverter | Efficiency & Output Waveform

Inverter | Efficiency & Output Waveform

In many cases, renewable energy sources have DC outputs. The outputs of PV cells, fuel cells, some wind turbine generators, and other renewable energy devices are DC, but most of the world uses AC power. Therefore, DC power sources use an inverter to change DC to AC. Early inverters were …

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All about Batteries

All about Batteries

Most electrical sources deliver energy almost immediately upon production. Batteries are an exception; they store electrical energy and deliver power to a load on demand. Batteries are electrochemical sources and use a chemical process to generate DC electricity. Batteries supply power to the load and are then recharged to repeat …

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Battery Bank Sizing

Battery Bank Sizing

The following steps can be used to estimate the size of a battery bank for a stand-alone PV system (and other systems). 1. Calculate the average daily AC load at Wh per day (this is done before the battery bank sizing by using utility electric bills or adding the watts …

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Difference between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator

Difference between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator

This article covers the key differences between Conductor, Semiconductor, and Insulator on the basis of Conductivity, Resistivity, Forbidden Gap, Conduction, Band Structure, Current Flow, Band Overlap, 0 Kelvin Behavior, and Examples. The following table covers the key Differences between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator. You May Also Read: Difference between Electric and …

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Fiber Optics Basics

Fiber Optics Basics

Optical Fiber is a length of ultra-pure glass or plastic that provides a closed pathway for transmitting light between two points. Glass optical fibers are by far the most commonly used, so we will assume that the optical fibers in all our discussions are made of glass. Optical Fiber: A …

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Three Phase Transformer Connections

Three Phase Transformer Connections

For three-phase electricity transformation, it is possible to use three separate but similar single-phase transformers, or a three-phase transformer. A three-phase transformer is more compact and more efficient. The single core in a three-phase transformer can have various forms by combining the cores of single-phase transformers. Figure 1 shows the more common …

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Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Industrial Applications

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Industrial Applications

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are useful in increasing production and improving overall plant efficiency. PLCs can control individual machines and link the machines together into a system. The flexibility provided by a programmable logic controller has allowed its use in many applications for manufacturing and process control. Process control has …

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Types of PLCs

Types of PLCs

The type of programmable logic controller (PLC) that is used depends upon the application, size and number of loads to be controlled, need for monitoring and reprogramming the circuit, and amount of control required (ON/OFF to anywhere in between). Budget cost and the knowledge level of personnel who will need …

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AC Motor Braking Methods

Electric Motor | Protection | Failure | Troubleshooting

An AC motor drive decelerates a motor at a controlled rate by placing an electric load on the motor. The advantage in using a motor drive to apply a braking force is that maintenance is kept to a minimum because there are no parts that come in contact during braking. …

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Electronic and Programmed Overloads

Electronic & Programmed Overloads

Electronic Overloads New motor starters normally include an electronic overload instead of heaters. An electronic overload is a device that has built-in circuitry to sense changes in current and temperature. An electronic overload monitors the current in the load (motor, heating elements, etc.) directly by measuring the current in the …

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Variable Frequency Drive

Variable Frequency Drive Components

AC motor drives are referred to as variable frequency drives, adjustable frequency drives, inverter drives, vector drives, direct torque control drives, and closed-loop drives. Regardless of how an AC drive is referred to, its primary function is to convert the incoming supply power to an altered voltage level and frequency …

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Solid State Motor Starters

Solid-State Motor Starters

A solid-state motor starter is an electronically operated switch (contactor) that uses solid-state components to eliminate mechanical contacts and includes motor overload protection. Solid-state motor starters are connected into a circuit after the disconnect/overcurrent protection device and before the motor. Solid-state motor starters include motor overload protection and are controlled by …

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Solid State Relay Vs Electromechanical Relay

Solid State Relay Vs Electromechanical Relay

Electromechanical relays (EMRs) and Solid state relays (SSRs) are designed to provide a common switching function. An EMR provides switching through the use of electromagnetic devices and sets of contacts. An SSR depends on electronic devices such as SCRs and triacs to switch without contacts. In addition, the physical features …

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