## Analog & Digital Multimeter

A basic multimeter can measure the three basic electric values (i.e., voltage, current, and resistance), but more functions can also be included in a multimeter. Initially, there are two types of multimeters, analog and digital. A multimeter is a must-have tool for someone working with electricity and electronics. It is …

## Capacitors in DC Circuits

A capacitor acts as a storage device to electricity. The amount of storage depends on the capacity of the capacitor. We want to study what happens if a capacitor is included with resistors connected to a DC circuit.  Figure 1a is a simple DC circuit with a resistive load, to which …

## What is Electric Power | Definition, Formula & Examples

It is always the electric power in an electric circuit that determines how much energy is going to a device, a system, or a place, and how much that energy costs. A good comprehension of the relationships for electric power, unit of power measurement, and the rules that determine power is very important. …

## Basic Electronic Components | Resistor, Inductor, & Capacitor

All the apparatuses that you can name as electric devices can be composed of one or more of the main electronic components. An electric device is connected to electricity by means of a switch and some wires; it may have a fuse as well, and if it uses electricity from …

## Capacitor Types | Fixed & Variable Capacitors

Capacitors are made in hundreds of sizes and types. Several of these will be discussed in the following section. Fixed Capacitors Fixed paper capacitors are made of layers of tinfoil. The dielectric is made of waxed paper. Wires extending from the ends connect to the foil plates. The assembly is …

## What is Capacitance | Definition & Formula

Definition: Capacitance is a property that opposes any change in voltage. A capacitor is a device that temporarily stores an electric charge. A capacitor accepts or returns this charge in order to maintain a constant voltage. Schematic symbols that are used to represent a capacitor are shown in Figure 1. …

## Mutual Inductance: Definition & Formula

Definition: When two coils are within magnetic reach of each other so that the flux lines of one coil link with, or cut across the other coil, they have mutual inductance.  If the coils are close to each other, many magnetic lines of flux from the first coil will link …

## Self-Inductance: Definition & Unit | RL Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Inductance: Inductance can be defined as the property in an electric circuit that resists a change in current. This resistance to a change in current is the result of the energy stored within the magnetic field of a coil. A coil of wire has inductance. Some electrical items that contain …

## Corona Effect in Transmission Lines | Factors Affecting Corona

Corona Definition: When an alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is large as compared to their diameters, there is no apparent change in the condition of atmospheric air surrounding the wires if the applied voltage is low. However, when the applied voltage exceeds a certain value, …

## Overhead Line Insulators: Types, Material, Properties

The overhead line conductors are open and do not have any insulated coating over them. Those conductors should be supported on the poles or towers in such a way that current from conductors does not flow to earth through supports, that is, line conductors must be properly insulated. This is …

## Types of Tariff in Electricity | Electricity Tariff: Definition, Examples, Characteristics

The electrical energy that is produced in a power station is delivered to a large number of consumers. The consumers can be convinced to use electrical energy if it is sold at a reasonable price. Here comes the idea of tariffs. Definition: A tariff is the schedule of rates structured …

## Wire Gauge Sizes | Chart | Circular Mil Area

Conductors are the pathways that allow electrons to flow through an electrical circuit. Conductors can be made in various shapes and sizes. They can be made from a number of different materials. The most common conductor you will encounter is copper wiring. Copper is an excellent conductor and can be …

## Electrical Schematic Diagram | Elementary & Wiring Diagram

Electrical Schematic diagrams convey specific information to the technician. They illustrate such items as the size, type, component part number, and component location in relationship to the other circuit components. Diagrams can be used for installation, fabrication, troubleshooting, or to explain the circuit’s operation or purpose. Symbols are used to …

## Ohmmeter: Working Principle & Circuit Diagram | Series & Shunt Type Ohmmeter

Definition: A meter used to measure the value of an unknown resistance is called an ohmmeter. The same meter movement that was used in the voltmeter and ammeter can be used for the ohmmeter. A voltage source and a variable resistor are added to the ohmmeter’s circuit. Series Type Ohmmeter …

## Voltmeter: Definition and Working Principle

Definition: A voltmeter is a basic device used for the measurement of electric potential or voltage, in volts. Voltmeter Working The same basic meter movement that is used in an ammeter is also used to measure voltage. This is providing that the impressed voltage across the coil never exceeds 0.1 volt, …

## Ammeter: Definition & Working Principle

Definition: An ammeter measures electrical current in a circuit. An ammeter will usually measure in amperes, milliamperes, or microamperes, depending on the scale or design of the instrument. Ammeter Working The coil in the meter movement of an ammeter is wound with many turns of fine wire. If a large …

## Smart Grid: Applications & Components

The Smart Grid Services/Applications refers to systems, including computers, programs, databases, people, and operational support to manage the applications. The Smart Grid Components refer to the devices, sensors, and controllers that provide information to the Smart Grid Services/Applications and receive the command to effect control of devices. Smart Grid Services/Applications …

## Smart Grid: Definition, Goals, Objectives, NIST Conceptual Model

Definition: Smart Grid is a new electricity network, which highly integrates the advanced sensing and measurement technologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs), analytical and decision-making technologies, automatic control technologies with energy and power technologies and infrastructure of electricity grids. Some important aspects of what ‘smart’ are listed below: Observability: It …