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# Electrical Circuits

## Parallel Circuit: Definition & Examples | Resistors in Parallel

Figure 1 shows two different ways of drawing a circuit diagram for the same simple parallel circuit. Circuit diagrams usually show interconnecting conductors as either horizontal or vertical lines, as in Figure 1(a). However, to illustrate the nature of a parallel circuit, we redraw the circuit diagram by combining the …

## Series Circuit: Definition & Examples | Resistors in Series

Series Circuit Definition A series circuit can be identified by the connection between components or by the current through them. For example, in the circuit of Figure 1, R1 and R2 are connected in series because no other component or branch is connected to the junction of R1 and R2. …

## Power & Efficiency: Definition, Unit, Formula, Examples

Power is the rate of doing work. The letter symbol for power is P. The watt (W) is the Si unit of power. One watt is equal to one joule per second: 1 W = 1 J/s Equation 1 shows the relationship between power and work: \[\begin{matrix}   P=\frac{W}{t} & {} …

## Linear & Nonlinear Resistor | Definition | Characteristic Curve

For most conductors, a graph of current versus voltage is a straight line, indicating a constant resistance (see Figure 1). The smaller the resistance, the steeper the slope of the graph. Definition: A resistor that maintains a constant V/I ratio is a linear resistor. As the current through a resistor …

## Parallel RLC Circuit: Analysis & Example Problems

In parallel RLC circuits the three basic components are in parallel with each other, and, therefore, all are subject to the same voltage. The current for each branch, however, depends on the impedance of the branch and can be individually determined by employing Ohm’s law. For a parallel RLC circuit, the voltage is common …

## Series RLC Circuit: Analysis & Example Problems

In a series RLC circuit, the three basic elements are in series with each other, which means that they all have the same current. The formulation covers the general case of three types of the load being present in a circuit. If any of the components is absent (usually, the inductor or …

## Capacitors in AC Circuits

When a capacitor is subject to a voltage across its terminals, it starts charging until its charge becomes at the level of the applied voltage. During the time that charging takes place a current flows in the circuit (wires connecting the capacitor to the power source). This current is due to …

## Inductors in AC Circuits

When a coil of wire (an inductor) is connected to DC electricity (Figure 1), a current is building up from zero, making a magnetic field. The wire, itself, is in that field, and therefore, a voltage is generated in it. This generated voltage is in the opposite direction of the …

## Inductors in DC Circuits

Figure 1 illustrates a simple DC circuit consisting of a resistor with which an inductor is added in series. We are interested to see what the effect of this inductor to the circuit is. The effect of an inductor in an electric circuit is always to oppose a change in the …

## Magnetism, Electromagnetism & Magnetic Materials

One of the properties of electricity is magnetism. All motors work based on this property of electricity and its effects. Magnetism Certain metals of the iron family can become magnetized if their atoms align such that this property is enhanced. This alignment can be due to contact with another magnet, …

## Analog & Digital Multimeter

A basic multimeter can measure the three basic electric values (i.e., voltage, current, and resistance), but more functions can also be included in a multimeter. Initially, there are two types of multimeters, analog and digital. A multimeter is a must-have tool for someone working with electricity and electronics. It is …

## Capacitors in DC Circuits

A capacitor acts as a storage device to electricity. The amount of storage depends on the capacity of the capacitor. We want to study what happens if a capacitor is included with resistors connected to a DC circuit.  Figure 1a is a simple DC circuit with a resistive load, to which …

## What is Electric Power | Definition, Formula & Examples

It is always the electric power in an electric circuit that determines how much energy is going to a device, a system, or a place, and how much that energy costs. A good comprehension of the relationships for electric power, unit of power measurement, and the rules that determine power is very important. …

## Basic Electronic Components | Resistor, Inductor, & Capacitor

All the apparatuses that you can name as electric devices can be composed of one or more of the main electronic components. An electric device is connected to electricity by means of a switch and some wires; it may have a fuse as well, and if it uses electricity from …

## Capacitor Types | Fixed & Variable Capacitors

Capacitors are made in hundreds of sizes and types. Several of these will be discussed in the following section. Fixed Capacitors Fixed paper capacitors are made of layers of tinfoil. The dielectric is made of waxed paper. Wires extending from the ends connect to the foil plates. The assembly is …

## What is Capacitance | Definition & Formula

Definition: Capacitance is a property that opposes any change in voltage. A capacitor is a device that temporarily stores an electric charge. A capacitor accepts or returns this charge in order to maintain a constant voltage. Schematic symbols that are used to represent a capacitor are shown in Figure 1. …

## Mutual Inductance: Definition & Formula

Definition: When two coils are within magnetic reach of each other so that the flux lines of one coil link with, or cut across the other coil, they have mutual inductance.  If the coils are close to each other, many magnetic lines of flux from the first coil will link …

## Self-Inductance: Definition & Unit | RL Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Inductance: Inductance can be defined as the property in an electric circuit that resists a change in current. This resistance to a change in current is the result of the energy stored within the magnetic field of a coil. A coil of wire has inductance. Some electrical items that contain …