One of the most common components encountered in the study of electronics is the resistor. The resistor is used to create desirable voltage drops and limit current values in electronic circuitry. Figure 1 shows several molded composition, fixed resistors. They are manufactured in many sizes and shapes. The schematic symbol …

Read More »## Electrical Circuit Devices

There are several common circuit devices that are present in most electrical and electronic circuits. They provide a means of controlling electron flow through the conductor paths and provide for safe operation of circuits. The three important items discussed here are switches, connectors, and circuit protection devices. Switches Switches are …

Read More »## Low Pass and High Pass Filter Bode Plot

Frequency response plots of linear systems are often displayed in the form of logarithmic plots, called Bode plots after the mathematician Hendrik W. Bode, where the horizontal axis represents frequency on a logarithmic scale (base 10) and the vertical axis represents either the amplitude or phase of the frequency response …

Read More »## Band Pass Filter Frequency Response

Using the same principles and procedures in the case of low and high pass filters, it is possible to derive a band pass filter frequency response for particular types of circuits. Such a filter passes the input to the output at frequencies within a certain range. The analysis of a …

Read More »## Low Pass and High Pass Filter Frequency Response

There are many practical applications that involve filters of one kind or another. Modern sunglasses filter out eye-damaging ultraviolet radiation and reduce the intensity of sunlight reaching the eyes. The suspension system of an automobile filters out road noise and reduces the impact of potholes on passengers. An analogous concept …

Read More »## Fourier Series

The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of frequency domain analysis of signals, and specifically the Fourier series. Later in this article, we explain how it is possible to represent periodic signals by means of the superposition of various sinusoidal signals of different amplitude, phase, and frequency. …

Read More »## Second Order System Transient Response

In general, a second-order circuit has two irreducible storage elements: two capacitors, two inductors, or one capacitor and one inductor. The latter case is the most important in terms of new fundamentals; however, the important aspects of all second-order system responses are discussed in this section. Since second-order circuits have …

Read More »## First Order System Transient Response

First-order systems are important in all engineering disciplines and occur frequently in nature. Such systems are characterized by a single state variable, where the system energy is proportional to the square of the state variable. That energy is dissipated by the system such that the rate of change of the …

Read More »## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Definition Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load resistance Ro is equal to Thevenin resistance RT as seen from load Terminals. The reduction of any linear resistive circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent form is a very convenient conceptualization, …

Read More »## Superposition Theorem

The principle of superposition is a valid and frequently used, analytic tool for any linear circuit. It is also a powerful conceptual aid for understanding the behavior of circuits with multiple sources. For any linear circuit, the principle of superposition states that each independent source contributes to each voltage and …

Read More »## Node Voltage Method

Node voltage analysis is the most general method for the analysis of electric circuits. Its application to linear resistive circuits is illustrated in this article. The node voltage method is based on defining the voltage at each node as an independent variable. One of the nodes is freely chosen as …

Read More »## Mesh Current Analysis

Another method of circuit analysis employs mesh currents. The objective, similar to that of node analysis, is to generate one independent equation for each independent variable in a circuit. In this method, each mesh in a circuit is assigned a mesh current variable and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) is applied …

Read More »## Characteristics of Network and Electric Circuit

The Oxford online dictionary defines a network as “a group or system of interconnected people or things”. In an electric network, elements, such as resistors, are connected by wires. The same dictionary defines a circuit as “a complete and closed path around which a circulating electric current can flow” or …

Read More »## Difference Between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Ferromagnetism

In order to classify materials as magnetic or non-magnetic, it must be determined whether or not forces act on the material when a material is placed in a magnetic field. If a bar of any given material is suspended in a magnetic field, it will either turn at a right …

Read More »## Difference between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator

This article covers the key differences between Conductor, Semiconductor, and Insulator on the basis of Conductivity, Resistivity, Forbidden Gap, Conduction, Band Structure, Current Flow, Band Overlap, 0 Kelvin Behavior, and Examples. The following table covers the key Differences between Conductor Semiconductor and Insulator. You May Also Read: Difference between Electric and …

Read More »## Thevenin’s Theorem | Thevenin Equivalent Circuit | Solved Examples

Suppose that the circuit of Figure 1(a) is sealed in a black box (represented by the thick line) with only the terminals A and B exposed. A high-resistance voltmeter connected across these terminals shows that the open-circuit output voltage of the circuit is 80 V. Similarly, connecting a very low …

Read More »## Nodal Analysis with Solved Examples

Nodal analysis is a circuit-analysis format that combines Kirchhoff’s current- law equations with the source transformation. Converting all voltage sources to equivalent constant-current sources allows us to standardize the way we write the Kirchhoff’s current-law equations. For nodal analysis, we consider source currents to flow into a node. If the …

Read More »## Mesh Current Analysis with Solved Problems

Mesh Current Analysis is a technique that simplifies and speeds up writing the simultaneous equations for solving various resistance networks. The format for mesh equations is straightforward, but it cannot handle some of the networks that we can solve with the loop procedure. A mesh is a closed loop that …

Read More »## Source Transformation Example Problems with Solutions

Source transformation is a circuit analysis technique in which we convert voltage source in series with resistor into a current source in parallel with the resistor and vice versa. For a given constant-voltage source, Rint in the equivalent constant-current source has the same value but appears in parallel with the ideal current source, …

Read More »## Series-Parallel Circuit: Definition & Examples | Series-Parallel Resistors

Considered as a whole, the circuit in Figure 1 is neither a series nor a parallel circuit. However, R2 and R3 are connected between the same two points in the circuit and must have the same voltage drop. Therefore these two resistors are in parallel, and we can calculate a …

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